EXCELLENCY OF RUSSIA
Foreign Relations

The Russian Federation (Russia) is recognized in international law as continuing the legal
personality of the former Soviet Union. The Russian Federation continues to implement the
international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat on the UN
Security Council, membership in other international organizations, the rights and obligations under
international treaties and property and debts. Russia is one of the key players in international
relations. As one of five permanent

members of the UN Security Council, Russia has a special responsibility for maintaining
international peace and security. Russia is a member of the Group of Eight (G8) industrialized
nations and is a member of a large number of other international organizations, including the
Council of Europe and OSCE. Russia takes a special role in the organizations created on the
territory of the former USSR, largely under the leadership of Russia : CIS, EurAsEC, CSTO, SCO.
The collapse of the Soviet Union has

also resulted in Russia becoming a somewhat more NATO-friendly country and the establishment
of the NATO-Russia Council, which brings together the NATO members and the Russian
Federation; however, Russia has not formally joined the NATO as an ally, nor has Russia
expressed any desire to join NATO. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. It maintains
diplomatic relations with 178 countries and has 140 embassies. Russia's foreign policy is
determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Capital
(and largest city)
Moscow
55°45′N, 37°37′E
Official languages
Russian official
throughout nation;
thirty
others co-official in
various regions
Demonym
Russian
Government

President
Prime Minister
Semi-presidential
federal republic
Vladimir Putin
Viktor Zubkov
Formation
Founded

Declared

Finalised
862 AD


June 12, 1990

December 25,
1991  
Area
Total

Water (%)
17,075,400 km²
(1st)

13
Population
2006 estimate

2002 census

Density
142,754,000 (8th)


145,274,019

8.3/km² (209th)
21.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP)
Total


Per capita
2006 estimate
$1.727 trillion
(8th1)

$12,096 (59th)
GDP (nominal)
Total

Per capita
2006 estimate
$979 billion (11th)

$6,856 (59th
HDI (2004)
0.797 (medium)
(65th)
Gini? (2002)
39.9 (medium)
Currency
Ruble (RUB)
Time zone
Summer (DST)
(UTC+2 to +12)
(UTC+3 to +13)
Internet TLD
+7
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STUDY & WORK ABROAD
Russia is the largest country in the world. Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place
Russia among the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The country contains 23
UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Russian economy is currently labeled as a high-income
economy and by extension, as a developed country by the World Bank. Russia rich in natural
resources including petroleum, diamonds, platinum, gold, copper, manganese, uranium, silver and
graphite. Also knows as largest diamond-producing nation, one of the largest petroleum oil
producer and largest satellite developer in the world. Russia is also has world’s finest traditions in
arts, Ballet, theater, cinema, literature, music, and visual arts. Russia’s great technological and
scientific Innovations are legendary.

Russian Federation is a transcontinental country extending over much of northern Europe and Asia
With an area of 17,075,400 km², Russia is by far the largest country in the world, covering almost
twice the total area of the next-largest country Canada, and has enormous mineral and energy
resources. Russia has the world's ninth-largest population. Russia shares land borders with the
following countries (counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast): Norway, Finland, Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North
Korea. It is also close to the United States (the state of Alaska), Sweden, and Japan across
relatively small stretches of water (the Bering Strait, the Baltic Sea, and La Perouse Strait,
respectively).

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the newly-independent Russian Federation emerged as a
great power and is also considered to be an energy superpower. Russia is considered the Soviet
Union's successor state in diplomatic matters and is a permanent member of the United Nations
Security Council. It is also one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the
world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is the leading nation of the
Commonwealth of Independent States, a member of the
G8 as well as other international
organizations.

Nature
As big as Russia is, it's no surprise that it is home to a large number of ecosystems and
species. Its forests, steppes, and tundra’s provide habitat for many rare animals,
including Asiatic black bears, snow leopards, polar bears, and small, rabbit-like
mammals called Picas.
Russia's first national parks were set up in the 19th century, but decades of unregulated
pollution have taken a toll on many of the country's wild places. Currently, about one
percent of Russia's land area is protected in preserves, known as zapovedniks.
Russia's most famous animal species is the Siberian tiger, the largest cat in the world.
Indigenous to the forests of eastern Russia, these endangered giants can be 10 feet (3
meters) long, not including their tail, and weigh up to 600 pounds (300 kilograms).
People and Culture

There are about 120 ethnic groups in Russia who speak more than a hundred languages. Roughly
80 percent of Russians trace their ancestry to the Slavs who settled in the country 1,500 years
ago. Other major groups include Tatars, who came with the Mongol invaders, and Ukrainians.

Russia is known all over the world for its thinkers and artists, including writers like Leo Tolstoy and
Fyodor Dostoevsky, composers such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and ballet dancers including
Rudolf Nureyev.

Russia's biggest cities have social lives comparable to New York’s vibrant scene. In regard to the
arts, Russia has always occupied a prominent spot on the world scene. The Bolshoi Theater and
Pushkin Art Gallery in Moscow, the Mariinsky Theater and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg – these
are considered to be some of the best art institutions in the world. In St. Petersburg alone there
are 2,000 libraries, 221 museums, 80 theaters, 100 concert halls, 45 art galleries, 62 movie
theaters, and 80 nightclubs, and over 100 concerts, shows and festivals each year.

Russia has a population of 145.5 million people, 80% of whom reside in Western Russia and two-
thirds of whom live in cities. Moscow alone claims twelve million citizens, standing as the largest
city in Europe. St. Petersburg boasts less than half of that, with a mere five million residents. 1 out
of 4 Russians is retired, with the average age being 30 years old and growing every year. The
normal Russian family consists of three people.

Science and technology

Science and technology in Russia developed rapidly since the Age of Enlightenment, when Peter
the Great founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University and
polymath Mikhail Lomonosov founded the Moscow State University, establishing a strong native
tradition in learning and innovation.
In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientist, making
important contribution into physics, astronomy, mathematics, computer, chemistry, biology,
geology and geography. Russian inventors and engineers excelled in such areas as electrical
engineering, shipbuilding, aerospace, weaponry, communications, IT, nuclear technology and
space technology.
Recently, the crisis of the 1990s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and
technology. Many Russian scientists and university graduates went to Europe or United States in
the so-called brain drain migration. In the 2000s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the
situation has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernization and
innovation. Current priorities for the country's technological development include energy efficiency,
IT (including both common products and the products combined with space technology), nuclear
energy and pharmaceuticals.[1]