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EDUCATION SYSTEM
The education of Polish society was a goal of rulers as early as the
12th century, and Poland soon became one of the most educated
European countries. The library catalogue of the Cathedral Chapter
of Kraków dating back to 1110 shows that already in the early 12th
century Polish intellectuals had access to the European literature. In
1364, in Kraków, the Jagiellonian University, founded by King
Casimir III, became one of Europe's great early universities. In 1773
King Stanisław August Poniatowski established his Commission on
National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), the world's first
state ministry of education.

Today, Poland has more than a hundred tertiary education
institutions; traditional universities to be found in its major cities of
Białystok, Bydgoszcz, Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź,
Olsztyn, Opole, Poznań, Rzeszów, Szczecin, Toruń, Warsaw,
Wrocław and Zielona Góra as well as technical, medical, economic
institutions elsewhere, employing around 61,000 workers. There are
also around 300 research and development institutes, with about
10,000 more researchers. In total, there are around 91,000
scientists in Poland today.According to a recent report by the
European Commission, Poland ranks 21st on the list of EU states
in the area of innovation. Conditions for knowledge creation are
worsening, particularly because of a decline in business research
and development, from 0.28% of GDP in 1998 to 0.16% in 2003.
Public R&D expenditures were 0.43% of GDP in 2003. The share
of university R&D funded by the business sector has also declined,
indicating that firms have not turned to outsourcing research to
make up for declining R&D expenditures. Because of the very low
levels of R&D, the process of transition of Poland to a knowledge
economy is slow.

Foreign languages

Students in Poland typically learn one or two foreign languages at
schools. Generally, in 2005/06 the most popular obligatory foreign
languages in Polish schools were:

•        English - 65.9%
•        German - 33.6%
•        Russian - 6.1%
•        French - 3.3%
•        Latin - 0.6%
•        Italian - 0.3%
•        Spanish - 0.2%
•        Others - 0.1%

In 2005/06 there were 49,200 students in schools for national
minorities, most of them in German, Kashubian, Ukrainian and
Belarusian
Capital
(and largest city)
Warsaw
52°13′N, 21°02′E
Official
languages
Polish²
Demonym
Pole
Government

President
Prime Minister
Parliamentary
republic

Lech Kaczyński
Donald Tusk
Formation
Founded

Declared

Finalised
14 April 966

11 November 1918

01 May 2004
Area
Total

Water (%)
312,679 km² (69th³)
120,728 sq mi
3.07
Population
2006 estimate

2002 census

Density
38,518,241 (33rd)

38,530,080

122/km² (83rd)
319.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP)
Total


Per capita
2007 estimate
$631.8 billion (IMF)
(24)

$16,599 (IMF) (52)
GDP (nominal)
Total

Per capita
2007 estimate
$631.8 billion (IMF)
(24)

$16,599 (IMF) (52)
HDI (2004)
0.862 Expression
error: Unrecognised
word
"expression"(37th)
Currency
Złoty (PLN)
Time zone
Summer (DST)
CET (UTC+1)
CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD
pl5
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